Pirillo, C. (N.D.) Why Should Celebrities Use Social Media? [Online]. Available at: http://chris.pirillo.com/why-should-celebrities-use-social-media/ [Accessed: Wednesday 27th November 2013] [Non-Academic]
“When a celebrity shares themselves online, they are making themselves less of a “star” and more of a human. It allows them to make real connections with people, and it reminds all of us that no one is “above” us in any way. We’re all on the same level, y’all – every one of you is just as human as anyone else. Using social media can help level that playing field.”
Twitter Counter, Twitter top 100: most followers, [Online]. Twitter Counter. Available at: (http://twittercounter.com/pages/100) [Accessed 27th November 2013]. [Non-Academic]
Greenwood, D.N., 2013. Fame, Facebook, and Twitter: How attitudes about fame predict frequency and nature of social media use.Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 2(4), pp.222–236. [Academic]
“Social media (e.g. Facebook, Twitter) offers the opportunity to both enact and respond to public performances of self, as well as to follow and interact with actual public figures. However, to date, we know little about how users’ attitudes about fame intersect with their social media behaviours.” (page 222)
“Online Profiles may function as a reassuring social mirror that confirms existential presence and value.” (Page 223)
“the diversity and magnitude of audiences afforded by social media platforms like FB and Twitter vastly outrank the number of interaction partners most of us encounter in daily life.” (Page 224)
“Social media use continues to rise in popularity; two thirds of adult Internet users are on Facebook – a frequency that jumps to 86% when sampling users between 18 and 29 years old (Duggan & Brenner, 2013). Twitter is reportedly used by only 16% of adult Internet users, but this number once again obscures increased adoption among 18-24 year olds (using at a rate of 27%, Duggan & Brenner, 2013) as well as a trend over the past 2 years in which individuals aged from 25 to 44 have doubled their usage (Smith & Brenner, 2012).” (Page 224)
“Twitter is premised on a potentially asymmetric system in which one can have one’s posts (or Tweets) followed by someone who one does not, in return follow. For this reason and others described later in the text, Twitter may be a more “more fame friendly” platform than Facebook.” (Page 224)
“Twitter has been described as encouraging the enactment of “microcelebrity” (Marwick & Boyd, 2011a) among non-celebrity users. The authors point out that Twitter users gain status and followers by marketing themselves/their thoughts as a type of likeable personal brand, designed to appeal to diverse and loyal audiences (p. 127). The social media presence of actual celebrities may contribute to these practices.” (Page 224)
“research suggests that one major motivation for Twitter adoption is interest in and perceived access to celebrities (Hargittai & Litt, 2011)” (Page 224)
“Users of both FB and Twitter may now embed famous media figures within their actual social networks.” (Page 224)
“In some cases, individuals may get an alleged response or “retweet: from a favourite media figure (debates continue as to which celebrities are tending to their Twitter feeds themselves vs. outsourcing this job to a staff member.” (Page 224)
“Just as fame, or thoughts about fame, may confer feelings of heightened social value, so may electronically engaging with actual famous others.” (Page 224)
“Caughey (1984) notes that imagining being singled out by an idealised media figure may be alluring because it “makes you somebody” (p. 50)” (Page 224)
“The mere possibility that a favourite media figure will read and perhaps respond to one’s posts may be particularly alluring for those who find fame and its perks appealing.” (Page 225)
The Free Dictionary, microcelebrity [Online]. The Free Dictionary Available at: (http://www.thefreedictionary.com/microcelebrity) [Accessed: 25th November 2013] [Non-Academic]
“a celebrity whose fame is relatively narrow in scope and likely to be transient”
Lebel, K. & Danylchuk, K., 2012. How Tweet It Is: A Gendered Analysis of Professional Tennis Players’ Self-Presentation on Twitter. International Journal of Sport Communication, 5(4), pp.461–480. Available at:http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=84331039&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed November 11, 2013]. [Academic]
“The innovations of social media have altered the traditional methods of fan-athelete interaction while redefining how celebrity athletes practice their roles as celebrities.” (Page 461)
“We have now reached the point where it is unusual to tune into a sport broadcast, attend a live event, or even read a sport-related article without some sort of Twitter reference mentioned. Traditional news media are reporting stories based on Twitter sources with increasing regularity (Burt, 2010). Twitter has shattered our traditional views of fan-athelete interaction and redefined how athletes practice their roles as celebrities.” (Page 461)
“The term microcelebrity has been coined to describe the prevailing style of online behaviour linked to an increase in the popularity of ‘self branding’ and strategic self presentation. (Hearn, 2008; Lair, Sullivan & Cheney, 2005). “Twitter has popularised the practice of microcelebrity. In this arena, the creation of compelling content can be leveraged to superstardom.”
MY OWN POINT>> Jim’ll paint it on Facebook. Plenty of people following him just for painting funny situations using MS paint, then can be his own brand and print the images on t-shirts and sell them for profit.
Bullingham, L. & Vasconcelos, A.C., 2013. “The presentation of self in the online world”: Goffman and the study of online identities. Journal of Information Science, 39(1), pp.101–112. Available at:http://jis.sagepub.com/content/39/1/101 [Accessed November 25, 2013]. [Academic]
Wolverson, R., 2013. The Human Billboard. Time, 181(14), p.B1. Available at: http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=86888763&site=eds-live&scope=site[Accessed November 25, 2013]. [Academic]
Haag, P. (2013)., The Rise of the Micro-Celebrity | Harpy’s Review. Big Think. Available at: http://bigthink.com/harpys-review/the-rise-of-the-micro-celebrity [Accessed November 25, 2013]. [Non-Academic]
“Or, they are micro-celebrities. My hypothesis is that young people are asked to function today in what amounts to a celebrity economy. In this economy, all they have to rely on is their own “brand” and name. Their celebrity-hood is micro, because it doesn’t transpire on the big screen or in larger-than-life proportions, but in the capillaries of social media, reality tv, and Twitter. It’s an inner experience of self rather than an objective state of being famous.”
Stever, G.S. & Lawson, K., 2013. (p339) Twitter as a Way for Celebrities to Communicate with Fans: Implications for the Study of Parasocial Interaction. North American Journal of Psychology, 15(2), pp.339–354. Available at: http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=87531068&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed November 10, 2013]. [Academic]
“All coded celebrities used Twitter to communicate both with other celebrities and with members of the public or fans about their work as well as personal likes and dislikes, conveying information that revealed personal activities that are not typically shared in other forums.”
Page, R., 2012. (p183-184)The linguistics of self-branding and micro-celebrity in Twitter: The role of hashtags. Discourse & Communication, 6(2), pp.181–201. Available at:http://dcm.sagepub.com.ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/content/6/2/181[Accessed December 1, 2013]. [Academic]
“Tweets are multifunctional, and may be used to post an update or share a link, send a public message directed to another member, or to forward a message posted by another to all the members of a follower list. Communication in Twitter is asynchronous but fast-paced, and its members have developed a number of conventions in order to keep track of the talk that emerges. These conventions include the use of the prefix ‘@’ signal to another member’s user name, the abbreviation ‘RT’ to indicate that a message has been forwarded (retweeted) and the use of a hashtag (#) as a prefix to indicate a search term. All three resources can be leveraged in the service of self-branding and micro-celebrity, for example, to display connection with others or to signal influence (as indicated by the number of times a user name is mentioned or a retweet is forwarded). This study focuses in particular on the potency of hashtags as a means of constructing the identity of Twitter members in such way as to gain increased attention.”
“Within the linguistic marketplace of Twitter, hashtags are a crucial currency which enables visibility and projects potential interaction with other members of the site. Hashtags can be used to make a term searchable and therefore visible to others who are interested in tweets written about the same topic.”
Perry, K, 2013. KITTENS! Click here: http://vnty.fr/1bao9Kx to see exclusive photos of @JohnMayer & me for our single “Who You Love” shot by Mario Sorrenti! @katyperry. Available at:https://twitter.com/katyperry/status/407672869502873600 [Accessed December 5, 2013].
Perry, K. 2013. JAPAN! Pre-sale for my HEADLINE show at U-Express starts Saturday at noon JST. Get your tickets (and a t-shirt) here! http://eplus.jp/uexpress-ofh/. @katyperry. Available at:https://twitter.com/katyperry/status/408441599656730624 [Accessed December 5, 2013].
Perry K., 2013. Guys! I am SO honored to become a @UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador today! I am #unconditionallyUNICEF: http://uni.cf/katyperry @voicesofyouth. @katyperry. Available at:https://twitter.com/katyperry/status/407962805569323008 [Accessed December 5, 2013].
Donnelley, D & McPartlin, A, 2013. Here we go! At last!!!!!! D #carltondance #imacelebrity. @antanddec. Available at:https://twitter.com/antanddec/status/407983396543926272[Accessed December 5, 2013].
Jim’ll Paint it, (2013) [Online] Available at: https://www.facebook.com/JimllPaintIt?fref=ts [Accessed December 5, 2013]