Objective 1 – To consider how the effect of the social networking, and in particular Twitter, has changed the way people communicate. – PR&P

Twitter was co-founded by Jack Dorsey and Evan Williams.

Was launched March 21, 2006.

Ahmad, I. (2013) Most Amazing Twitter Statistics | Social Media Today. Available at:http://socialmediatoday.com/irfan-ahmad/1854311/twitter-statistics-IPO-infographic [Accessed November 26, 2013]. [Non-Academic]

“there are now 231.7 million active users on Twitter worldwide, and that 100 million of them log into the service on daily basis”

“What if I told you that more than 5K tweets are tweeted each and every second, and 3 million websites integrate with Twitter, while 70 percent of Twitter’s ad revenue comes from mobile devices and that, despite this, the company has yet to turn a profit?”

Murthy, D. (2013) Twitter: Social Communication in the Twitter age. Digital Media and Society Series. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press. [Academic]

“Though restricted to 140 characters, Twitter has simple yet powerful methods of connecting tweets to larger themes, specific people, and groups. This is a unique aspect of the medium. Specifcally, tweets can be categorised by a ‘hash-tag’. Any word(s) preceded by a hash sign (#) are used in Twitter to note a subject, event or association.” (Page 3)

“On the other hand, this also presents issues of privacy. The barriers between public and private become extremely blurred as one can see very specific conversations between individuals which are many times intended to be private, but are tweeted nonetheless” (Page 5)

“Twitter has been explained as a microblogging technology which is specifically designed to broadcast short but regular bursts of content to particularly large audiences well beyond a user’s direct social network.” (Page 12)

“Twitter has not just made the headlines through news of activism or disasters. Rather, Twitter often pervades both the professional and personal lives of its users.” (Page 12)

“Additionally, Twitter has, in some ways, redefined existing cultural practices such as diary keeping, news consumption, and job searching, to name a few. Indeed as Clapperton (2009) remarks, it has redefined the way in which consumers complain.” (Page 13)

“Rather, professional news media websites are mostly built around content from professional jouralistic sources and most “citizen journalism” online relies and links back to professional news media websites. Nonetheless, Twitter has made possible some interesting cases of citizen journalism…  A question of interest in this chapter is whether this signals the rise of citizen journalism or whether it is merely a new means for traditional media to crowdsource stories (and even crowdsource free photographic documentation).” (Page 59)

Baraniuk, C., 2013. End of anonymity. (Cover story). New Scientist, 220(2940), pp.34–37. Available at:http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=91634989&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed December 1, 2013]. [Academic]

“What could Brookes, an unassuming 45-year-old from Brighton, UK, have done to provoke such an attack? She had simply challenged the conduct of internet trolls who ganged up on a minor celebrity. When she didn’t back down, she became the victim of a two-year campaign of harassment, receiving nearly 10,000 similar messages.”

“It has been called the online toxic disinhibition effect, and it is a consequence of a basic fact of internet life: online, no one knows who you are. “A lot of people wouldn’t say things to other peoples’ faces that they do on the screen,” says Brookes.” (Nicola Brookes).

Hamilton, K. & Hewer, P., 2010. Tribal mattering spaces: Social-networking sites, celebrity affiliations, and tribal innovations. Journal of Marketing Management, 26(3/4), pp.271–289. Available at:http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=60088434&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed November 11, 2013]. [Academic]

“The dramatic increase in the amount of time spent on social-networking sites not only changes the way people spend their time online but also has ‘ramifications for how people behave, share and interact within their normal daily lives’ (Nielson, 2009). “

Schuhmacher, L., 2013. How the #Hashtag Changed the Way We Communicate. Huffington Post. Available at:http://www.huffingtonpost.com/lauren-schuhmacher/how-the-hashtag-changed-t_b_3407787.html [Accessed December 5, 2013]. [Non-Academic].

“With the advent of Twitter came the hashtag’s heyday. Words or phrases marked with the symbol “#” categorize tweets (or Instagrams, or Tumblr posts, or anything, really) into “tags,” helping readers who might not follow you find your posts by checking tags for topics that interest them.”

“The hashtag makes sense online, where certain cites use it for its original purpose. But recently, the little tic-tac-toe of linguistics has made its way into other areas of communication, including places that don’t support tagging: Facebook, text messaging, and even casual speech (out loud, one would say, “hashtag: blessed”). Why?”

Webopedia, (2013). Microblog. Webopedia. Available at:http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/M/microblog.html [Accessed December 5, 2013]. [Non-Academic].

“A type of blog that lets users publish short text updates. Bloggers can usually use a number of service for the updates including instant messaging, e-mail, or Twitter. The posts are called microposts, while the act of using these services to update your blog is called microblogging.  Social networking sites, like Facebook, also use a microblogging feature in profiles. On Facebook this is called “Status Updates”.

Acuna, K. (2013) The 13 Celebrities With The Worst Grammar On Twitter. Business Insider. Available at: http://www.businessinsider.com/worst-celebrity-grammar-2013-6 [Accessed December 5, 2013].

“Snoop Dogg (30.9 mistakes) per 100 words”.

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