Weiss, M.-A., 2013. Friends with Commercial Benefits: Social Media Users Do Not Want Their Likeness Used in Advertisements. Journal of Internet Law, 16(8), pp.1–17. Available at:http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=buh&AN=85360313&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed November 11, 2013]. [Academic]
“In PhoneDog V. Noah Kravitz, the defendant continued to use a Twitter account he had set up while working for the plaintiff, even after he left the company. His former employer, a web site reviewing mobile products and services, claimed that this allegedly unauthorised use of the account during eight months caused it to incur $340,000 in damages. It came up with that figure by multiplying 17,000 followers by a Twitter follower value of $2.50, that is, $42,000 per month, and multiplied it by eight. It seems that in the social media world, personal data has a market value, although it is unclear from the case how the plaintiff came up with the $2.50 value for each Twitter follower. The defendant contested the method used to calculate the value of the account, and argued that if, even possible that the value of a Twitter account can be determined, it could not simply be calculated by multiplying each user by $2.50, but, rather, serval factors should be considered, such as the number of followers, number of tweets, the content of the tweets, the person publishing the tweets, and the person determining the value of the account.”
Zauner, A., Koller, M. & Fink, M., 2012. Sponsoring, Brand Value and Social Media. PATROCINIO, VALORIZACIÓN DE LA MARCA Y MEDIOS SOCIALES., 52(6), pp.681–691. Available at:http://ezproxy.leedsmet.ac.uk/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=a9h&AN=83078819&site=eds-live&scope=site [Accessed November 11, 2013]. [Academic]
“Firms invest large sums of money to align their market offerings with celebrity endorsers (AGRAWAL and KAMAKURA, 1995). A celebrity endorser can be defined as “any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement” (MC-CRACKEN, 1989)> In this way, it is hoped that specific characteristics or qualities (e.g expertise) of celebrities will be transferred to products via marketing communications (Erdogan, 1999). Although the effectiveness of a celebrity, the market offering and social conditions (e.g, time and place) (SILVERA and AUSTAD, 2004), extant research clearly documents that celebrity endorsers have positive effects on product evaluations (e.g, DEAN and BISWAS, 2001) attitudes (e.g, KAHLE and HOMER, 1985; KAMINS, 1989) and behavioural intentions (e.g, LIU, HUANG, MINGHUA, 2007). However, the relationship with perceived brand value remains disregarded. This is surprising, considering that the customer value concept is of paramount importance in current marketing research.”
Denham, J., Daniel Radcliffe: Celebrities on Twitter and Facebook cannot expect privacy. The Independent. Available at:http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/films/news/daniel-radcliffe-celebrities-who-tweet-moment-to-moment-cannot-expect-privacy-8953642.html [Accessed November 28th, 2013]. [Non-Academic]
Clooney: “Why on God’s green earth would you be on Twitter? Because first of all, the worst thing you can do is make yourself more available, right?” theGravity actor said.”
Radcliffe: ” I don’t have Twitter and I don’t have Facebook and I think that makes things a lot easier,” he told Sky News. If you go on Twitter and tell everybody what you’re doing moment to moment and then claim you want a private life, no one is going to take that request seriously.” Radcliffe added there were “certain things you can do to make it a lot easier on yourself” as a celebrity.”
CBS News, (2011). “Celebrities paid thousands for endorsement tweets” [Online], CBS News. Available at: http://www.cbsnews.com/news/celebrities-paid-thousands-for-endorsement-tweets/ [Accessed December 6, 2013].
“Smith polled his interns and they picked Lindsay Lohan, the actress most famous for her run-ins with the law. According to Smith, CampusLIVE paid Lohan about $3,500 for one tweet: “These challenges for college kids on (hash)CampusLIVE are SO addicting!”
The post to Lohan’s 2.6 million fans drove about 4,500 clicks to the website, Smith said. But he also said he wasn’t sure if he’d use her again – not because of her troubles, but because he’s already tapped her fan base.”
ELBERSE, A, & VERLEUN, J 2012, ‘The Economic Value of Celebrity Endorsements’, Journal Of Advertising Research, 52, 2, pp. 149-165, Business Source Premier, EBSCOhost, viewed 6 December 2013.
“Celebrity, and in particular athlete, endorsements are big business: Nike alone is thought to have spent around $475 million annually on athlete endorsements as part of its $1.7 billion advertising budget in 2006 (Rovell 2006), but many companies outside the sports apparel industry are active participants as well. This study finds validation for the use of celebrity endorsers as an advertising strategy: a firm’s decision to enlist an athlete endorser generally has a positive pay-off in brand-level sales – in an absolute sense and relative to the firm’s competitors – and increases the firm’s stock returns. Signing the kinds of endorsers featured in this study on average generates a 4% increase in sales”